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Bug Catalogue

     
       
Stored product pests, as well as house and hygiene pests have become a serious problem during the past few years. Insects, mites, rats and mice do not belong into our food or the food areas. Not only do they cause damage by their incessant eating but they can also carry micro-organisms to working surfaces, implements and onto our food. The increase of food and feed poisoning lately is partly caused by these pests. Through the increasing use of natural fibres textile pests like clothes moths are also doing more and more damage.

Here is a list of the most common storage, house and hygiene pests. By clicking onto a name you can get information about the particular pest.
       
Grain weevil
Rice weevil
Cigarette beetle
Rusty grain beetle
       
Confused flour beetle
Grain beetle
Lesser grain borer
Coffee bean weevil
       
Cadelle
Common grain mite
Wood borer
Borer
       
       
   
Grain weevil

Appearance

A weevil of 3-5 mm length; black-brown (red-brown shortly after hatching), the head ends in a slightly curved proboscis; the neck shield has depressed markings and is almost as long as the longitudinally-grooved wing covers.

Life History

The entire development takes place within the kernel of grain and is not discernible from the outside; the completely developed weevil then eats its way out of the kernel; the duration of the development phase depends on temperature, normally taking about 8-16 weeks; under favorable conditions it may be as short as 5 weeks. 2-3 broods per year are possible in temperate zones; the weevil cannot fly.

Distribution

World-wide; importance is, however, limited to temperate zones.

Damage

The main stored grain pest in countries of the temperate zones. Damage is caused by the adults, but the larvae cause the main damage. Prefers wheat and rye, but also feeds on corn, barley, millet, rice and buckwheat, less on oats; the weevil also occasionally eats flour, whole meal or pasta; after mass infestation the grain becomes warm and damp, this leading to the formation of mold; kernels damaged by granary weevils offer points of attack for secondary pests.
     
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Rice weevil

Appearance

The appearance of this weevil is similar to that of the granary weevil; it is however smaller (2.3-3.5 mm long), and differs from the granary weevil in that it has tour reddish spots on the brown wing covers.

Life History

Develops within the kernel ot grain, like the granary weevil requires greater warmth than the granary weeviI as it develops at temperatures above 55oF. Only few weevils survive the winter temperatures of the temperate zones; in tropical climates, the development of a brood may take only 1 month. The weevil can fly; in hot countries, the rice weevil flies to the fields and lays its eggs on cereal crops.

Distribution

World-wide, through cereal trading. Of great importance in tropical and subtropical countries.

Damage

A dangerous stored grain pest in warmer countries; it infests all types of grain. The larvae can also develop in farinaceous products, buckwheat, peas, acorns, chestnuts and cottonseed the weevil also feeds on flour hemp-seed biscuits waffles, white bread and tobacco; often found together with granary weevils. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.) is very similar to the rice weevil, but larger (3.3-5 mm) and the reddish markings on the wing covers are more clearly defined. Otherwise, as for rice weevil.

     
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Cigarette beetle

Appearance

A 2-4 mm long squat beetle, almost hemispherical, reddish-brown and covered with fine hairs; the head is hidden under the domed neck shield, the wing covers have no markings. The antennae are saw-like; the segments are practically identical. The larva is very hairy and grows to a length of up to 4 mm.

Life History

The female deposits 20-100 eggs singly on the infested goods over a number of days (at temperatures of over 68o F). After about 7 days, the very mobile larvae emerge; as they grow older, they become less mobile and pupate in a cocoon of food or waste particles after about 6-10 weeks. 5-14 days later the beetle emerges. The total development period is 8-13 weeks. The adults are strong flyers and are active in subdued light at temperatures above 65oF.

Distribution

World-wide. They are frequently carried from warmer areas to temperate zones where they can only survive in warm storages.

Damage

Attacks not only leaf and processed tobacco but also a large number of other dry vegetable products such as herbs, oilseed cake, rice, cocoa, groundnuts, figs, dates, paprika, etc. Practically all damage is done by the larvae.

     
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Rusty grain beetle

Appearance

A 1.5-2 mm long beetle, flat, wing covers almost twice as long as wide, reddish-brown, head and neck shield relatively large, long, fine antennae. The slim yellowish-white larvae are freely mobile and grow to 3-4 mm length. The yellowish-white pupa lies in a cocoon.

Life History

The female deposits some 100-400 eggs loosely in the infested goods. The development period from egg to beetle is 5-12 weeks, depending on temperature. The beetles develop either inside or outside of grain kernels. They can withstand relatively low and high temperatures.

Distribution

World-wide, but found mainly in the temperate zones.

Damage

Mainly to all types of grain and grain products, but also to rice, dried fruit, ground nut seeds, herbs and oilseed cake. Is found both as a secondary pest, i.e. together with other grain pests, and as a primary pest in grain, as the larvae and beetles damage the whole kernels. Rapid mass reproduction leads to great heat generation in the grain. Severe damage can be done to seeds and brewing barley, as this pest feeds also on the germs.

     
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Confused flour beetle

Appearance

A slim beetle of 3-4 mm length, of uniform red-brown to black colour. Remark to T. confusum: the segments of the antennae gradually broaden towards the tip. Remark to T. castaneum': the antennae end in three-segmented clubs. The slim, freely-mobile larvae are whitish yellow-brown and grow to 5-6 mm in length.

Life History

The eggs, which are laid loosely on the stored product, are not readily discernible; the female deposits eggs for a period which can exceed 1 year, 350400 eggs on Average. The total development period is 7-12 weeks, depending on temperature; the larvae pupate loosely in the infested goods. Sensitive to cold; high humidity favors development. The beetles seldom fly, and can live more than 3 years.

Distribution

All parts of the world; in cooler climates, restricted to warm storages.

Damage

Beetles and larvae feed on a very wide variety of dry vegetable substances, for example, milled cereal products, groundnuts, cocoa beans, legumes, spices dried fruits, tapioca, oilseed cake, etc. A frequent mill pest; badly infested flour has a sharp odor and turns brown; its baking properties are damaged. This pest can also attack undamaged wheat kernels.

     
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Grain beetle

Appearance

A slim beetle, 2.5-3.5 mm long, dark brown; neck shield has two deep longitudinal grooves and 6 sharply-pointed projections on each side. The slim, whitish-yellow larvae are freely mobile and grow to a length of 3.5-4 mm; the pupa lies free or between adhering food particles.

Life History

The female deposits an average of about 150 eggs loosely in the infested goods. The total development period is 3-10 weeks, depending on temperature, nutrition and moisture: the lower development boundary is approx. 65o F. In the temperate zones, the beetle can survive the winter and live to an age of about 3 years.

Distribution

World-wide.

Damage

Found in warehouses, silos, mills, food-processing plants; infests grain and grain products, flour oats, semolina, pearl barley, malt, whole meal and other vegetable stocks such as feeds and dried fruit. In granaries, it is usually found as a secondary pest together with other grain pests; is, however, occasionally found alone, as primary pest.

     
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Lesser grain borer

Appearance

A beetle of 2-3 mm length, red-brown to black-brown, slim, cylindrical in body. The hood-shaped, rounded neck shield extends beyond the head; the spots on the shield gradually become smaller towards the rear. The three last segments of the antennae form a loose club. The larvae are white, similar to grubs and have brown head capsules; the white pupal stage is passed inside the grain kernel.

Life History

In sufficiently warm climates, the beetle can fly well. A female deposits 300-500 eggs in grain and similar crops. The larvae can eat their way into grain kernels, and also pupate there. Development is only possible above 73o F. the development period is approx. 4 weeks at 83o F.

Distribution

In warmer countries. lt is carried into the temperate zones in goods where it can only survive in warm warehouses.

Damage

Mainly attacks wheat, rye, corn, rice and millet. Badly infested wheat takes on a honey-like odor. Also attacks whole kernels as a primary pest. Both larvae and beetles bore into grains; irregularly-shaped boreholes are made and the flour produced by boring appears on the surface. Also attacked are beans, lentils, chick-peas, dried potatoes, tapioca and herbs.

     
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Coffee bean weevil

Appearance

This compact beetle is 1.5-4 mm long, dark brown with light brown spots and long antennae. The footless slim larvae is curved and hairy and grows to a length of 5-6 mm.

Life History

The beetle flies to fields and lays its eggs on damaged cobs. Larvae bore into coffee beans in which they pupate.

Distribution

It is found in coastal countries of the tropics and sub-tropics.

Damage

Mainly to corn, cocoa, coffee beans, dried fruits, nutmegs, ginger, etc. in tropical stores. Is transported to the temperate zones in cocoa and coffee beans but generally does not survive there.
     
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Cadelle

Appearance

The slim, flat, 6-11 mm long beetle is dark brown to black; ventral side antennae and legs are red-brown. A particular feature is the waisting between wing covers and neck shield, whose front outer corners extend towards the head. The dirty- white larva, 15-18 mm long, has a black head, behind this a black shield, two black hooks at the end of the body and long body hairs. The yellowish-white pupa is 7-10 mm long.

Life History

The female deposits some 500-1,000 eggs in clusters in the grain or grain products over the course of several months. The entire development period is about 1 year in temperate zones, and up to 3 generations per year in the tropics. In mills, the larvae are mainly found in clumps of Mediterranean flour moth webs, but also in cracks in timber. Before pupation, the larvae bore into wood or make a bed of flour and other materials. The larvae hibernate before pupation. The adults are long lived, often more than a year.

Distribution

World-wide.

Damage

Is a serious pest in the tropics. The cadelle is found in mills, silos and warehouses, on grain, mill products, feeds, groundnut seeds, etc. Irregular borings are found in kernels; germs are preferred. The cadelle gnaws through the bolting cloths in mills, and through its tunnelling may weaken timber sections in mill equipment and storage bins.
     
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Common grain mite

Appearance

Because they are very small grain mites are usually only detected when the infestation is severe. The infested goods then appear to be covered with a moving layer of dust. The female is O.5 mm and the male is O.4 mm long the body is transparent white and sparsely covered with hair; the legs are pale violet. The adult mites have 4 pairs of legs, while the larvae have 3 pairs, like insects.

Life History

Mass infestation by grain mites is only possible when the stored goods are very moist. A female deposits about 20 eggs. The white, six-footed larva is 0.15 mm long. Within a period of two weeks, it passes through two eight-legged nymphal stages before becoming an adult. Occasionally the mite passes through a long very resistant stage of development between the two nymphal stages, the so- called hypopus stage.

Distribution

World-wide.

Damage

Apart from grain and cereal foods, the mite also damages animal feeds, dried fruits tobacco, etc. Infestation by mites leads not only to damage caused by feeding, but also produces a bad odor and rapid deterioration of foodstuffs.
     
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Wood borer

Appearance

The adult beetle may wary in size from 6-25mm in length. Its overall colour is greyish-brown to black, with light patches on the wing covers.

Life History

Although the average life cycle in Europe is from 3-6 years, it can last 10 years or more. Some softwood timbers, infested in Europe and subsequently imported into Australia have had an adult emerge from them 10 years after their arrival.

Distribution

Very common in many parts of Europe, the USA and South Africa. In Britain it is known as the house Longhorn beetle.

Damage

It attacks softwoods such as pine, fir, and spruce and so thoroughly excavates the timber that it causes severe structural damage.
     
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Borer

Appearance

The borers are 3 to 4 mm long with an obvious, unconcealed head.

Life History

The female beetle lays eggs in the end of pores of the sapwood to a depth of 1-3mm. The larvae emerge through round holes about 1.5-2mm in diameter. The life cycle from eggs to adults is completed within 3-12 months.

Distribution

The borers are pests of structural and joinery timbers in houses and furniture.

Damage

They attack both hardwoods and pines. Attack usually occurs during the first few years of the service life of structural and joinery timbers and furniture.
     
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© Fumicom Ltd. 2006-2007

gs in the end of pores of the sapwood to a depth of 1-3mm. The larvae emerge through round holes about 1.5-2mm in diameter. The life cycle from eggs to adults is completed within 3-12 months.

Distribution

The borers are pests of structural and joinery timbers in houses and furniture.

Damage

They attack both hardwoods and pines. Attack usually occurs during the first few years of the service life of structural and joinery timbers and furniture.      
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                [ Printable version ]    
© Fumicom Ltd. 2006-2007